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Resources for the Study of Indian History

Resources for the Study of Indian History

Disclaimer: Many claims and counter-claims have been made about the nature of the Arab, Persian and Turkish invasions of India which began in the eighth century and continued through the eighteenth century. Many of those who have made claims have failed to substantiate them using primary sources, which has resulted in confusion. This reference is based on research ranging over a wide range of primary sources, providing excerpts of relevant passages in English translation. Many of these texts were written by authors who accompanied the invaders and recorded what they saw in Arabic, Persian or Turkish. The source of these excerpts are the translations made by Sir H. M. Elliot, and edited and published in 24 volumes by John Dowson in 1867. Each scholar studying this material must make his or her own analysis and interpretation. No attempts are made here to make value judgements, nor should the historical events described herein be projected onto contemporary peoples or situations. In any balanced interpretation of today’s society, this data would be only a small subset of the much larger set of information needed to reach a balanced conclusion.

Arab Invasion of Sindh

 Date  Source  Events
 711-713 CE  Chach Na’ma  Invasion of Sindh by Muhammad bin Qâsim
 711-c. 850 CE  Futuhu-l Bulda’n  Arab Invasion and administration in Sindh

Ghaznivid Period

 Date  Source  Events
 986-1019 CE  Tarikh Yamini  Subuktigin and Mahmud’s Attacks on India
 late 10th century  Tarikhu-s Subuktigin  Subuktigin’s Assault on Hansi
 1008 CE  Tarikh-i Firishta  Mahmud’s Defeat of Indian confederacy at Peshwar
 1009-1024 CE  Habibu-s Siyar  Mahmud’s Attack on Kangra, Kanauj & Somnath
 1014 CE  Khulasatu-t Tawarikh  Mahmud’s Attack on Thaneswar
 1018-1019 CE  Tabakat-i Akbari  Mahmud’s Attack on Kanauj and Mathura
 1023-1024 CE  Asaru-l Bilad  Mahmud’s Attack on Somnath
 1023-1024 CE  Kamilu-t Tawarikh  Mahmud’s Attack on Somnath
 1023-1024 CE  Tabakat-i Nasiri  Mahmud’s Attack on Somnath
 1023-1024 CE  Tarikh-i Alfi  Mahmud’s Attack on Somnath
 1024 CE  Mirati Mas’udi  Aftermath of Attack on Somnath
 early 12th century  Nuzhatu-l Mushtak  Description of Indians

Delhi Sultanate

 Date  Source  Events
 1192-early 13th century  Taju-l Ma’asir  Qutb-ud-din Aibak & Îltutmish’s Raids
 1193-1260 CE  Tabakat-i Nasiri  Muhammad Bakhtiyar’s raid on Bihar; events during the reigns of the Îltutmish & Nâsir-ud dîn Mahmûd
 1194 CE  Kamilu-t Tawarikh  Qutb-ud-din Aibak’s Attack on Benaras
 1298 CE  Tazjiyatu-l Amsar  Sultan ‘Alau-d dîn’s Invasion of Gujarat
 1303-1310 CE  Tarikh-i ‘Alai  Sultan ‘Alau-d dîn’s Conquests
 1397-1398 CE  Malfuzat-i Timuri  Timur’s invasion of India
 1397-1398 CE  Zafar-nama  Timur’s invasion of India
 1492, 1542 CE  Zubdatu-t Tawarikh  Events during the Lodî dynasty
 no date  Mukhtasiru-t  Tawarikh  General Description of India

Moghul Period

 Date   Source  Events
 1564, 1567  Tabakat-i
 Âsaf Khân’s raid on Gondwâna; Akbar’s assault on Chitor
 1565-late 1500s  Tarikh-i Tahiri  Attacks on Thatta by the Portuguese and Mirza Muhammad Baki
 late 1500s  Beg Lar Nama  Sacking of ‘Umarkot by Mir Abu-l Kasim
 1714 CE  Muntakhabu-l Lubab  Persecution of Sikhs and Hindus
 1739 CE  Tarikh-i Hindi  Nâdir Shâh’s sack of Delhi
 1739 CE   Tazrikha  Nâdir Shâh’s sack of Delhi