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Metallurgy Bibliography

Metallurgy Bibliography

Agrawal, B.B., K.K. Parsad, G.I.S. Chauhan, P.K. Chaudhury and S.M. Aeron. 1998. Evolution of early iron making processes and their relevance in Indian context. In Achaeometallurgy in India (Ed.) Vibha Tripathi. Delhi: Sharada Publishing House. Pp. 218-27.

Agrawal, D.P. 1969. The Copper Hoards problem: a technological angle. Asian Perspectives 12: 113-119.

Agrawal, D.P. 1969-70.The metal technology of the Indian Protohistoric cultures: its archaeological implications. Puratattva 3: 15-22.

Agrawal, D.P. 1970. Metal technology of the Harappan culture and its socio-economic implications. Indian Journal of History of Science 5(2): 238-252.

Agrawal, D. P. 1971. The Copper Bronze Age in India. New Delhi: Munshiram Manoharlal.

Agrawal, D.P. 1976. Problems of Protohistoric copper artifacts and their ore

correlations. In Archaeological Congress and Seminar: 1972 (Ed) U.V.Singh.

Kurukshetra: Kurukshetra University. Pp.35-89

Agrawal, D.P. 1982. The Indian bronze age cultures and their metal technology. In Advances in World Archaeology (Ed.) F. Wendorf and A.E. Close. New York: Academic Press. Pp.213-264.

Agrawal, D.P. 1984. Metal technology of the Harappans. In Frontiers of Indus Civilization (Ed.) B.B. Lal and S.P.Gupta. New Delhi: Books & Books. Pp.163-168.

Agrawal, D.P. 1990. Origin of metallurgy in Asia. In History of Science & Technology in India (Ed.) G. Kuppuram & K. Kumudamani. Delhi: Sundeep Prakashan.

Agrawal, D. P. 1999. The role of Central Himalayas in Indian archaeometallurgy.

In Metals in Antiquity (Eds.) Young, Suzanne, M.M, P. Budd, A.M. Pollard, Paul

Budd and Rob Ixer. Oxford: Archaeopress. Pp. 193-199.

Agrawal, D.P. 2000. Ancient Metal Technology & Archaeology of South Asia. Delhi: Aryan Books International.

Agrawal, D.P. and J.S. Kharakwal (in press) Outstanding problems of early iron

age in India: need of a new approach. Paper presented at the Nainital Seminar

March 8-10, 2000.

Agrawal, D.P. and J.S. Kharakwal (in press) Jodhpura-Ganeshwar complex,

Meluhha and sociology of metallurgy. Paper presented in the Annual Congress

ISPQUS, Pune. December 27-31, 1999.

Agrawal, D.P., R.V. Krishnamurthy and Sheela Kusumgar. 1977. New data on the copper hoards and the Daimabad bronzes. Man and Environment 2: 41-46.

Agrawal, D.P., R.V. Krishnamurthy and Sheela Kusumgar. 1979. On the affiliation of the Daimabad bronzes: some fresh data. Int. Symp. In Archaeometry and Archaeological Prospection (Ed). I. Scollar. Pp.8-13.

Agrawal, D.P., R. V. Krishnamurthy and Sheela Kusumgar. 1981. Arsenical coppers in the Indian bronze age. In Recent Indian Researches in Archaeology and Art History

(Ed.) M.S. Nagaraja Rao. Delhi: Agam Kala Prakashan. Pp.9-18.

Agrawal, D.P., R.V. Krishnamurthy, Sheela Kusumgar, L.A., Narain and M.N.Sarin. 1974. Alloying in the copper hoards. Bulletin of the Museum and Archaeology 14: 14-18.

Agrawal, D. P., Sheela Kusumgar, M. G. Yadav, V. D. Gogte, Jeewan Kharakwal

and Manju Pant .1995. Was Kumaon the source of early Iron in north India?

Man and Environment 20 (1): 81-85.

Agrawal, D.P. and C. Margabandhu. 1975-76. Ancient gold working: some new 14C dates. Puratattva 78: 139- 149.

Agrawal, D.P., C. Margabandhu and N.C. Shekhar. 1976. Ancient copper workings: some new 14C dates. Indian Jr. Hist. of Sci 11(2): 133-136.

Agrawal, D.P. and Manju Pant. 1997. Bronze age technology. In History of

Technology in India (Ed.) A.K.Bag. New Delhi: Indian National Science Academy.

Agarwal,D.P. and Rajam Seshadhri. 1998. The metallurgical tradition of the Harappans. In Archaeometallurgy in India (Ed.) Vibha Tripathi. Delhi: Sharada Publishing House Pp.10-17.

Agrawal, D.P. and Vibha Tripathi. 1999. Early Indian iron technology, Himalayan contacts and Gangetic urbanization. The Fourth International Conference on the Beginning of the Use on Metals and Alloys (BUMA-IV) Matsue. Japan: The Japan Institute of Metals. Pp.53-58.

Agrawal, O.P., Hari Narayan and S.K. Bhatia. 1980-81. Technical studies of iron implements from the megalithic site Takhanhalli. Puratattwa 12: 97-100.

Agrawal O.P., Hari Narayan, Jay Prakash and S.K. Bhatia. 1990. Lamination technique in iron artifacts in ancient India. Journal of Historical Metallurgy Society 24: 12.

Agarwal, P.K.1998. Early Indian literature as a source of archaeometallurgy. In

Archaeometallurgy in India (Ed.) Vibha Tripathi. Delhi: Sharada Publishing House.

Pp 307-311.

Agrawal, R.C. 1984. Aravalli, the major source of copper for the Indus Civilization and Indus related cultures. In Frontiers of the Indus Civilization (Ed.) B.B.Lal and S.P. Gupta. New Delhi: Books and Books. Pp.157-62.

Agrawal, R.C. and Vijaya Kumar. 1976. The problems of PGW and iron in northeastern Rajasthan. In Mahabharat, Myth and Reality (Eds.) S.P. Gupta and S.K. Ramachandran. Delhi: Agam Prakashan. Pp. 241-44.

Asthana, Shashi. 1993. Harappan trade in metals and minerals: a regional approach. In Harappan Civilization: A Contemporary Perspective (Ed). G.L. Possehl. New Delhi: Oxford and IBH Publishing. Pp. 271-85.

Balasubramaniam, R. 1997. New insights on the corrosion of the Delhi Iron Pillar based on historical and dimensional analysis. Current Science l73 (12): 57-677.

Balasubramaniam, R. 1999. Some aspects of presence of lead in the Delhi Iron Pillar. Current Science 77 (5): 681-86.

Ball, V. 1869. On the ancient copper miners of Singhbhum. In Proceedings of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. Pp.170-75.

Ballal, N.B. et al 1990. Interim Report on Indigenous Iron and Steel making Technology of India. Delhi: Dept. of Metallurgy. IIT.

Banerjee, M.N. 1927. On metals and metallurgy in ancient India- metallurgy in RgvedaIndian Historical Quarterly 3(1-2): 1210-33.

Banerjee, M.N. 1929. Iron and steel in Rgvedic age. Indian Historical Quarterly 5: 432-36.

Banerjee, M.N. 1932. A note on iron in Rgvedic age. Indian Historical Quarterly. 8: 364-36.

Banerjee, N.R. 1965. The Iron Age in India. Delhi: Munshiram Manoharlal.

Banerjee, A. and Mookerjee, A.1984. Origin of mining. In Coal Mining in Indian (Ed.) S.N.Prashad and A. Mookerjee. Ranchi: CEMPDIL. Pp.3-6.

Bhan, K.K., Vidale Massimo and Jonathan Mark Kenoyer. 1994. Harappan technology:

theoretical and methodological issues. Man and Environment19: 141-57.

Bhatnagar, S.N. and L.K. Gurjar.1989. Zinc – a heritage. Hind Zinc Tech 1(1): 5-8.

Bhowmik, Swarna Kamal.1998. The development of zinc technology in ancient Gujarat. In Archaeomatallurgy in India (Ed) Vibha Tripathi. Delhi: Sharada Publishing House. Pp 104-107.

Biswas, A.K. 1991a. Archaeo-materials in India: some residual problems and future prospects. In Archaeometallurgy in India (Ed.) Vibha Tripathi. New Delhi: Sharada Publishing House. Pp. 3-10.

Biswas,A.K. 1999. Minerals and Metals in Ancient India. 2 Vols. Delhi: DK Prints.

Biswas, A.K., Biswas S. and Chakravorty, N.A. 1990. Archaeological studies in India and literary evidences. In Historical Archaeology of India (Ed.) Amita Ray and Samir Mukherjee: New Delhi: Books and Books. Pp. 49-66.

Biswas, A.K., Biswas,S.and Chakarvorty, N.A., 1990. Archaeomaterial studies in India and literary evidences. In Historical Archaeology of India (Ed.) Amita Ray and Samir Mukherjee, Delhi: Books and Books. Pp. 49-66.

Biswas, Sulekha and Arun Kumar Biswas. 1998. A literary perspective on archaeomaterials and scientific concepts in ancient India. In Archaeometallurgy in India (Ed.) Vibha Tripathi. Delhi: Sharada Publishing House. Pp 299-306.

Bose,H.K.1968. Mining in ancient India. Trans. Min. Geol. Metall. Inst. of India 64: 83-89.

Brooke, J.C. 1864, The mines of Khetri in Rajputana. Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal 33: 419-29.

Campbell, J. 1982. Report upon manufacture of steel in southern India. Journal of Asiatic Society of Bengal 11: 894-95.

Chakrabati, D.K., 1979. Iron on early Indian literature. Journal of Royal Asiatic Society of Bengal, Great Britain and Ireland No. 1.

Chakrabarti, D.K.1986. The Pre-industrial mines of India. Puratattva 16: 65-72.

Chakrabarti, D.K 1988. The old copper mines of eastern India. In The Beginning of the Use of Metals and Alloys (Ed.) R. Maddin. Boston: MIT. Pp. 230-44.

Chakrabarti, D.K. 1992. The Early Use of Iron in India. Madras: Oxford University Press.

Chakrabarti, D.K. and L. Lahiri. 1994. The Iron age in India: the beginning and consequences. Puratattva 24: 12-32.

Chakrabarti, D.K. and L. Lahiri. 1996. Copper and its Alloys in Ancient India. New Delhi: Munshiram Manoharlal.

Chattopadhyay, P.K. 1984. Archaeometallurgical studies in Indian sub-continent: a survey of metallography of iron objects. Indian Journal of History of Science 16 (4): 361-365.

Craddock, P.T., I.C. Freestone, L.K. Gurjar, K.T.M Hedge and V.H. Sonawane. 1985. The production of lead, silver and zinc in early India. In Old World Archaeometallurgy. (Ed.) A. Hauptmann, E. Pernicka and G. Wangner. Bochum: Selbstverlag des Deutschen Bergbau-Museums. Pp. 51-69.

Craddock, P.T., I.C. Freestone, Lynn Willies, H.V. Paliwal, L.K. Gurjar and K.T.M. Hegde. 1998. Ancient industry of lead, silver and zinc in Rajasthan. In Archeometallurgy in India (Ed.) V. Tripathi. Delhi: Sharada Publishing House. Pp. 108-33.

Datta, A. 1992. Early stages of iron technology and the development of regional pattern in India. In Man and His Culture: A Resurgence (Ed.) Peter S. Bellwood. New Delhi. 1992. Pp. 293-07.

Datta, A. 1998. Iron technology at the Chalcolithic phase at west Bengal. In Archaeometallurgy in India (Ed.) V. Tripathi. Delhi: Sharda Publishing House. Pp. 36-44.

Datta, A. and P.K. Chattopadhyay. 1986. The problems of Copper Hoards in west Bengal – a reappraisal in the light of metallographic and chemical analysis. Indian Museum Bulletin 11: 61-67.

De, S. and P.K. Chattopadhyay. 1989. Iron objects from Pandurajar Dhibi: archaeolometallurgical studies. Steel India 2(1): 33-41.

Deshpande, Vijaya. 1996. A note on ancient zinc-smelting in India and China. Indian Journal of History of Science 31 (3): 276-79.

Gair, E.A., 1897. The manufacture of brass and copper wares in Assam. The Journal of Indian Art and Industry 7: 1-4.

Gogte, V.D. 1982. Megalithic iron smelting at Naikund. In Naikund Excavations-1978-80 (Ed.) Deo, S.B. and A.P. Jamkhedkar. Bombay: Govt of Maharashtra.

Gupta, S.P. 1967. Further Copper Hoards, a reassessment in the light of new evidence. Journal of Bihar Research Society. Pp.1-7.

Hedge, K.T.M. 1964. Metallic studies on chalcolithic objects. Journal of the Oriental Institute 14: 84-90.

Hedge, K.T.M. 1965. Technical Studies in Chalocolithic Period Metallurgy in India. Unpublished Ph.D. Thesis. Baroda: M.S. University.

Hedge, K.T.M. 1969. Appendix I: Technical studies on copper artifacts excavated from Ahar. In Excavations at Ahar (Tambavati) 1961 (Ed.) H.D. Sankalia, S.B. Deo and Z.D. Ansari. Poona: Deccan College. Pp. 225-28.

Hegde, K. T. M. 1973. A model for understanding ancient Indian iron metallurgy. Man and Environment 8: 416-421.

Hedge, K.T.M. 1981. Scientific basis and technology of ancient copper and iron metallurgy. Indian Journal of the History of science 16(1): 189-201.

Hedge, K.T.M. and J.E. Ericson. 1985. Ancient India copper smelting furnaces. In Furnances and Smelting Technology in Antiquity (Ed.) P.T. Craddock and M.J. Hughes, British Museum Occasional Paper No. 48. London: British Museum Research Laboratory. Pp. 59-70.

Hooja, R. and V. Kumar. 1997. Aspects of the early Copper Age in Rajasthan. In South Asian Archaeology:1995 (Ed.) Raymond and Bridget Allchin. New Delhi: Oxford & IBH. Pp. 323-39.

Horne, L. 1990. A Study of Traditional Lost-Wax Coasting in India. Journal of Metals (October) 1990: 4

Jaggi, O.P. 1981. Technology in Ancient India. Delhi.

Jarrige, J. F. 1981. Economy and society in the early chalcolithic / bronze age of

Baluchistan: new perspectives from recent excavations at Mehrgarh. In South Asian

Archaeology 1979 (Ed.) Harbert Hartel. Berlin: Dietrich Teimer. Pp. 93-114.

Jha, C.B., D. Joshi, and B. Prakash. 1989. Metal extraction in Ayurvedic system of medicine. Bulletin of Metals Museum 14:17-26.

Joshi, S.D. 1970.History of Metal Founding on the Indian Subcontinent Since Ancient Times. Published by S.S. Joshi. Ranchi. Pp.165.

Joshi, S.D. 1997. Trade and technology of the Indus Valley: new insights from Harappan, Pakistan. World Archaeology 29(2): 262-77.

Kenoyer, J.M. and Heather M. L. Miller. 1999. Metal technologies of the Indus valley tradition in Pakistan & Western India. In The Archaemetallurgy of the Asian Old World (Ed.) Vincent C. Pigott. University of Pennsylvania Museum Monograph 89. Philadelphia: University Museum Publications.

Kosambi, D.D. 1963. The beginning of the Iron Age in India. Journal of Economic and Social History of the Orient 6(3): 309-318.

Krishnamurty, M. and V.S. Krishnaswamy. 1986. Status of mineral exploration and

reserves in northwest Himalayas. International Himalayan Geology SeminarSection IV New Delhi. Calcutta: Geol. Survey of India. Pp. 300-352.

Kuppuram, G. 1989. Ancient Indian Mining, Metallurgy, and Metal Industries. Delhi: Sundeep Prakashan.

Kuppuram, G. 1993. Some ethnographic aspects of the ancient Copper-Bronze tradition in India. Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society Series 3(2): 219-31.

Lal. B.B. 1951. Further on Copper Hoard Culture of the Ganga Valley and a review of the problems. Ancient India 7: 20-39.

Lowe, T. L. 1989a. Refractories in high-carbon iron processing: a preliminary study of the Deccani wootz-making crucibles. In Ceramics and Civilisation( IV): Cross-Craft and Cross-Cultural Interactions in Ceramics (Ed.) P. E. McGovern and M. D. Notis. Westerville, OH: The American Ceramic Society, Inc. Pp. 237-251.

Lowe, T.L.1989b. Solidification and the crucible processing of Deccani ancient steel. In Principles of Solidification and Materials Processing (Ed.) R. Trivedi, J. A. Sekhar and J. Mazumdar. New Delhi: Oxford & IBH Publishing. Pp.(2): 729-740.

Mackay, E.J.H. 1931. Technique and description of metal vessels, tools, implements and other objects. In Mohenjo-daro and the Indus Civilization (Ed.) J. Marshall. London: A. Probsthain. Pp. 488-508.

Maddin, Robert (Ed.). The Beginnings of the Use of Metals and Alloys. Cambridge: MIT Press.

Mani, B.R. 1998. The search of metals and techniques for minting earliest coins in India. In Archaeometallurgy in India. (Ed.) Vibha Tripathi. Delhi: Sharada Pulbing House. Pp 350-358.

Miller, Heather M.L.1994. Metal processing Harappan and Mohenjo-daro: information from non-metal remains. In South Asian Archaeology- 1993 (Ed.) A. Parpola and P. Koskikallio. Annales Academiac Scientiarum Frennicae. Series b. Helsinki: Suomalainen Tiedeakatemia. Pp. 497-510.

Miller, J. Heidi. 1998. A functional typology for metal objects from Chanhu-daro. In South Asian Archaeology1997 (Ed.) M. Taddei. Rome: IsIAO. Pp. 3-12.

Misra, V.N. 1970. Cultural significance of three copper arrow-heads from Rajasthan, India. Journal of Near Eastern Studies 29(4): 221-232.

Mishra, V.N., Vasant Shinde, R.K. Mohanty, Lalit Pandey and Jeewan Kharakwal. 1995. Excavations at Balathal: their contribution to the Chalcolithic and Iron age cultures of Mewar, Rajasthan. Man and Environmental 20(1): 57-80.

Munn, L. 1934. Economics dealing specially with the ancient gold mining activity of the area with suggestions for further development. Journal of Hyderabad Geol. Survey 1 (2).

Nagaraju, S.and Gururaja Rao, B.K. 1979. Chronology of Iron Age in south India. In Essays in Indian Protohistory (Ed.) D.P. Agrawal and D.K. Chakrabarti. Delhi. Pp.321-329.

Nanda, R. and D.K. Chakarbati. 1983. Lead in early India: a study of the geological, archaeological, and literary data. The Indian Historical Review 7: 1-18.

Narain,H., A.K. Srivastava, J. Prakshh, I.K. Bhatnagar and O.P. Agarwal. 1990. Metallographic studies of iron implements and weapon from Sooron 600-100 A.D. Pragdhara 1: 66-171.

Nautiyal, V., D. P. Agrawal and R. V. Krishnamurthy 1981. Some new analysis on

the Protohistorical copper artifacts. Man and Environment 5: 48-58.

Pant, G.N.1978. Indian Arms and Armoury. Vol. I, New Delhi: National Museum.

Pascoe, E. 1931. Minerals and metals. In Mohenj-daro and Indus Civilization

(Ed.) John Marshall. London: A. Probsthain. Pp. 674-691.

Rao, K.N.P. 1998, Metals in Indian medicine. In Archaemetallurgy in India (Ed.) Vibha Tripathi. Delhi: Sharada Publishing House. Pp 134-140.

Rao, S.R. 1987. Mining and metallurgy of copper in ancient India. In Archaeology and History (Ed.) B.M. Pande and B.D. Chattopadhyaya. Delhi: Agam Prakashan. 1: 383-98.

Ray, P.C. 1909. History of Hindu Chemistry. Calcutta: The Bengal Chemical and Pharmaceutical Works Limited.

Rivett Carnac, J.H. 1902. On some specimens of Indian metal work. Journal of Indian Archaeology 9: 33-39.

Sana Ullah, M.1931. Sources and metallurgy of copper and its alloys, and notes and analyses. In Mohenjo-daro and the Indus Civilization (Ed.) J. Marshall. London: A Probsthain. Pp. 481-88.

Sana Ullah, M.1940. The sources, composition, and techniques of copper and its alloys, In Excavations at Harappa (Ed.) M.S. Vats. Delhi: Government of India Press. Pp. 378-82.

Seshadri, R. 1992. The composition and smithery techniques of copper artifacts from Nagwada – a preliminary study. Man and Environment 17: 7-12.

Shaffer, Jim. 1984. Bronze age iron from Afghanistan: its implications for South Asian Protohistory. In Studies in Archaeology (Ed.) R. Ehrich. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. (1): 41-64.

Shekhar, N.C. 1983. Antiquity of mining and metallurgical activities at Ambaji, Kumbari and Deri, Gujrat and Rajasthan. Indian Journal of History of Science 18(2): 176-183.

Shinde, V.S. and Elizabeth Thomas. 1993. A unique Harappan copper fish-hook from Padri, Gujarat. Man and Environment 18: 145-47.

Sikdar, J.C.1983. Some light on metallurgy as revealed in Suvarna-Raupya-Siddhi_Sastra of the Jainacarya: Jinadattasuri (v.s.1210). In Reflection of Indian Art and Culture. Museum and Picture Gallery, Baroda. Pp.215-220.

Singh, Bhupendra Pal. 1998. Is iron appearing in archaeological context in eastern India a product of tribal expertise? An ethno-archaeological inquiry. In Archaeometallurgy in India (Ed.) Vibha Tripathi. Delhi: Sharada Publishing House. Pp 263-273.

Smith, V.A. 1907.The Copper Age and prehistoric implements of India: a supplement. Indian Antiquary 34: 229-44.

Solangaarachchi, Rose.1998. The beginning of iron and its production technology in ancient Sri Lanka. The Fourth International Conference on the Beginning of the Use on Metals and Alloys (BUMA-IV) Matsue, Japan: The Japan Institute of Metals. Pp. 47-52.

Srinivasan, Sharada 1998. Highlights of ancient metallurgy in south India: early use of high tin bronzes, high-carbon steel, metallic zinc, bronze smelting and solid cast images. The Fourth International Conference on the Beginning of the Use on Metals and Alloys (BUMA-IV) Matsue, Japan: The Japan Institute of Metals. Pp. 79-84.

Stephens, F.J. 1901-02. Geology and mineral resources of Kumaun Garhwal. Transactions of the Institution of Mining and Metallurgy 10: 393-414.

Tiwari, Rakesh & R.K. Srivastava. 1996-97. Excavations at Raja-Nal-ka -Tila, Dist. Sonbhadra (UP). Pragdhara 7: 77-95.

Tiwari H.R.K. and N.K. Kavdia.1984. Ancient mining activity around Agucha village, Bhilwara District, Rajasthan. Man and Environment 8: 81-87.

Tripathi, Vibha (Ed.). 1998. Archaeometallurgy in India. Delhi: Sharada Publishing House.

Tripathi, Vibha. 2001. The Age of Iron in South Asia. New Delhi. Aryan Books International.

Tripathi,Vibha and Arun K. Mishra.1977. Understanding iron technology:

an ethnographic model. Man & Environment 22(1): 59-66.

Tripathi, Vibha and B. Prakash. 1986. Iron technology in Ancient India. Metals and Materials. Pp. 568-579.

Tod, J. 1984. Some traditional iron production techniques. Journal of the Historical Metallurgy Society 18 (2): 95-104.

Wertime, T.A. and J.D. Muhly (Ed.) 1980. The Coming of the Age of Iron. New Haven: Yale University Press.

Willies,L.1984. Ancient mining in Rajasthan. Bulletin of the Peak District Mines Historical Society 10 (2): 81-124.

Wraight, E.A. 1940. Report on the metallography of two ancient bronze specimens found at Harappan. In Excavations 1986-1990: a Multidisciplinary Approach to Third Millennium Urbanism (Ed.) R.H. Meadow. Madison. WI: Prehistory Press. Pp. 71-88.

Yule, P. 1985. Metalwork of the Bronze Age in India. Prehistorishe Bronzefunde, abteilung XX, Band 8, Munich: C.H. Beck’sche Verlagsbuchhandlung.